Saturday, November 28, 2009

a Little Bit of Shell Command

Linux built with text command ( shell ). Shell is a program that input Unix Commands from the keyboard and relays them to the Unix system for execution. Shells typically include various shortcuts for users to use in stating their commands, and also a programming feature, in which users can make programs out of sets of their commands. It mean that we could run several program using the shell? Offcourse we do. Just type the command, so the program will running.

Example:

1. Runing firefox browser

type # firefox .The firefox browser automatically will run. If we want to surf to the certain address, just type like this #firefox address.

Example : #firefox www.ubuntu.com  the browser will bring us to the www.ubuntu.com

Note : 
Don't close the terminal windows, coz the runing program will close too. To prefent this, ubuntu have an answer. Just type nohup that mean send ignore signall to the system, when terminal is close, so the program will keep runing.


2. Install program from the shell?

No matter. Just type

#sudo apt-get install program_name
Example :

#sudo apt-get install vlc . This command will install vlc player to our ubuntu system.

3. Playing mp3 / ogg files from the shell?

This the command :
First time install vlc player #sudo apt-get install vlc wait for several time depend of your connection speed. Then type on the shell this command
#vlc -I filne_name.mp3, or add wildchart "*" to play  any file with the extention mp3 on the active directory.

Note :


we use uppercase i not l ( L )
The view of this command will show like this





How to increase or decrease the volume? use a and z . a to increase / volume up an z to decrease / volume down. To select title use arrow up and down then press enter

4. Download file

Ubuntu come with built in download manager wget. Just type all complete the target file location.

Case : If we want to download the older ubuntu the Ubuntu 8.04.1 release can be found at http://releases.ubuntu.com/hardy/ubuntu-8.04.1-desktop-i386.iso
on the shell we type :

#wget http://releases.ubuntu.com/hardy/ubuntu-8.04.1-desktop-i386.iso , the download progress will  show us the percentage and the long of the progress is depend of the speed of your connection. The file downloaded will be save to the active directory.

5. View graphic without graphical environment

First install aview to the system. On the  shell type #sudo apt-get install aview wait  the installation progress. When finished try to view your image using command.
#asciiview image_file.jpeg The result will like this, depend of the picture we viewed.








When use the synaptic, please install aview and imamagick packages.
use + / - and arrow to navigate the picture

6. On the dual OS between ubuntu and win, sometimes win refuse to boot, don't be panic. Let we  try to solve the win problem using our ubuntu.Use synaptic to search for the ntfsprogs package. Once it’s installed, unmount your Windows partition (if it’s mounted), and type sudo ntfsfix /dev/sda1 to check and fix the partition (assuming your Windows partition is /dev/sda1—likely if youi nstalled Ubuntu in a dual-boot configuration on a computer already running Windows). This tip is also useful if you see the “Cannot mount volume” error when
attempting to access your Windows partition from within Ubuntu.

7. Replace the native command with yours

Use alias.  You may wish to invent your own shell commands, which you can do with aliases.

For example

#alias ls "ls -F" That means that the ordinary ls command will always be replaced by ls -F, which I prefer because of its richer information content.

#alias mroe more
I often mistype the more command as “mroe,” so this automatically rectifies my error whenever I make this mistake.

#alias ls=’ls -F’
#alias mroe=more
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